This section provides a list of resources for clinicians who provide evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) or are interested in learning more about these treatments. These resources include EBP brochures for providing to Veterans and family members; EBP clinician fact sheets for mental health and non-mental health providers; comprehensive therapist manuals for implementing EBPs with Veterans; mobile apps for increasing skills or using as an adjunct to treatment; and an overview of EBP research and evaluation studies.
Clinician EBP Resourcesscrolls to first content section.
Patient EBP Brochures
This section includes patient brochures for different EBPs that may be provided to Veterans prior to or at the beginning of treatment and for making available in primary care and other potential referral settings.
Clinician EBP Fact Sheets
This section includes informational fact sheets for mental health and non-mental health providers interested in learning more about EBPs.
Clinical Resources for EBP Providers
This section includes therapist manuals for implementing EBPs with Veterans, as well as links to mobile applications based on EBPs that may be recommended to Veterans for increasing skills or using as an adjunct to treatment. The therapist manuals included in this section are designed to serve as a training resource for therapists completing specific VA EBP Training Programs, as well as for others inside and outside of the VA health care system and the military who are interested in further developing their EBP skills. These manuals are not a substitute for competency-based training in a specific EBP, but can be a useful resource to those receiving or who have received specific EBP training.
Therapist Manuals for EBPs with Veterans
Mobile Apps for Increasing Skills or Using in Treatment
This free app, developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, teaches strategies for increasing positive and meaningful activities in life to improve mood.
This free app provides information about depression, videos to help improve mood, positive activities, a thought diary, and a suicide safety plan.
This app includes both free and paid content for teaching specific CBT skills for managing stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety, including deep breathing and identifying and changing negative thinking patterns.
This free app, developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, is based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia treatment. It is designed to help Veterans learn more about how sleep works and how to make changes to your approach to sleep.
This free app, developed by the National Center for PTSD, provides information and teaches skills for coping with symptoms of PTSD.
This free app, developed by the National Center for PTSD, offers resources to support family members of those living with PTSD.
This free app, developed by the National Center for PTSD, teaches mindfulness skills to help reduce stress and increase ability to cope with unpleasant thoughts and emotions.
Substance Use Disorders
This website provides information and individualized feedback related to an individual’s alcohol use, risks of drinking, and how to make changes if they wish to do so.
This free app, developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, is designed to help Veterans with PTSD quit smoking. It provides education about smoking and quitting, tools to help users cope with urges to smoke, and motivation and support.
This free app, developed by WebMD, is designed to serve as a “personal wellness companion” for individuals with chronic pain. Users can view evidence-based information and videos about chronic pain, track their daily pain, pain triggers, and how they feel, as well as receive tips, set goals, and share progress with their health care providers.
This free app, developed by the Swiss start-up, Sanovation AG, includes a pain diary that allows for tracking pain level and location. A unique component of this app is online support forums that allows for connecting with other individuals with chronic pain, which can provide a community of support that can be helpful for successfully coping with chronic pain. An add-on feature enables users to track their stress levels, fatigue, and other symptoms related to pain.
Virtual Hope Box
This free app, developed by the DoD National Center for Telehealth and Technology, provides tools for promoting relaxation, coping with difficult situations, engaging in positive thinking, and distracting oneself during difficult times on. This resource, which is not specific to pain, includes many tools and strategies for managing thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that may contribute to chronic pain. The app is often used as part of CBT-CP treatment and may also be used by those not currently in treatment. Download for Apple or Android.
This free app, developed by the DoD National Center for Telehealth and Technology, includes guided breathing and muscle relaxation techniques that are effective for lowering tension and stress that often contribute to pain and for calming the body’s natural responses to pain. The app also includes a tutorial on the effects of relaxation on the stress response system. Download for Apple or Android.
This web-based program, created by the developers of Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy (IBCT), is a self-guided version of IBCT. The program includes feedback, interactive education, and video simulations to help couples identify relationship problems, develop a shared understanding of their problems, and take steps toward making concrete changes in their relationship. This web-based program is most appropriate for relationship problems that are not yet to the point that would require professional help. The program is free for couples who participate in a research program evaluating this approach. For those who complete the program outside of the research study, there is a small one-time fee.
This web-based program, developed by well-known relationship researchers, is designed to help strengthen relationships. Using written information, videos, and tutorials, the program provides self-guided information for identifying relationship problems or warning signs and for improving relationship skills, such as communication, problem solving, and positive relationship activities. The program is primarily designed for couples with lower levels of distress and for those who are interested in strengthening their relationship skills before problems occur. The program has a small one-time fee for use.
Research and Evaluation
This section includes a listing of meta-analyses and research and evaluation studies examining the efficacy and effectiveness of evidence-based psychotherapies for various conditions in the general population and with Veterans, specifically.
Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(5), 427-440.
Cuijpers, P., Geraedts, A. S., van Oppen, P., Andersson, G., Markowitz, J. C., & van Straten A. (2011). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(8), 581-592.
Studies with Veterans
Karlin, B. E., Brown, G. B., Trockel, M., Cunning, D., Zeiss, A. M., & Taylor, C. B. (2012). National dissemination of cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system: Therapist and patient-level outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 707–718.
Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M., Brown, G. K., Gordienko, M., Yesavage, J., & Taylor, C. B. (2013). Comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for depression among older versus younger veterans: Results of a national evaluation. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 70(1), 3-12.
Brown, G. K., Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M., Gordienko, M., Yesavage, J., & Taylor, C. B. (2016). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for veterans with depression and suicidal ideation. Archives of Suicide Research, 20(4), 677-682.
Stewart, M. O., Raffa, S. D., Steele, J. L., Miller, S. A., Clougherty, K. F., Hinrichsen, G. A., & Karlin, B. E. (2014). National dissemination of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for depression in Veterans: Therapist and patient-level outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(6), 1201-1206.
Walser, R. D., Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M., Mazina, V., & Taylor, C. B. (2013). Training in and implementation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depression in the Veterans Health Administration: Therapist and patient outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(9), 555–563.
Karlin, B. E., Walser, R. D., Yesavage, J., Zhang, A., Trockel, M., & Taylor, C. B. (2013). Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depression: Comparison among older and younger veterans. Aging & Mental Health, 17(5), 555-563.
Trauer, J. M., Qian, M. Y., Doyle, J. S., Rajaratnam, S. M., & Cunnington, D. (2015). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for chronic insomnia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 163(3), 191-204.
Mitchell, M. D., Gehrman, P., Perlis, M., & Umscheid, C. A. (2012). Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review. BMC Family Practice, 13(40).
Okajima, I., Komada, Y., & Inoue, Y. (2011). A meta-analysis on the treatment effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for primary insomnia. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 9(1), 24–34.
Studies in Veteran Population
Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M. Taylor, C. B., Gimeno, J., & Manber, R. (2013). National dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia in Veterans: Clinician and patient-level outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 912-917.
Trockel, M., Karlin, B. E., Taylor, C. B., & Manber, R. (2014). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia with veterans: evaluation of effectiveness and correlates of treatment outcomes. Behavior Research and Therapy, 53, 41-46.
Karlin, B. E., Trockel, M., Spira, A. P., Taylor, C. B., & Manber, R. (2015). National evaluation of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia among older versus younger veterans. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 30(3), 308-315.
Trockel, M., Karlin, B. E., Taylor, C. B., Brown, G. K., & Manber, R. (2015). Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia on suicidal ideation in veterans. Sleep, 38(2), 259-265.
Watts, B. V., Schnurr, P. P., Mayo, L., Young-Xu, Y., Weeks, W. B., & Friedman, M. J., (2013). Meta-analysis of the efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 74(6), 541-550.
Powers, M. B., Halpern, J. M., Ferenschak, M. P., Gillihan, S. J., & Foa., E. B. (2010). A meta-analytic review of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(6), 635–641
Studies with Veterans
Eftekhari, A., Ruzek, J. I., Crowley, J., Rosen, C., Greenbaum, M. A., & Karlin, B. E. (2013). Effectiveness of national implementation of Prolonged Exposure Therapy in VA care. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(9), 949-955.
Forbes, D., Lloyd, D., Nixon, R. D. V., Elliott, P. Varker, T., Perry, D., . . . Creamer, M. (2012). A multisite randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive processing therapy for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26(3), 442–452.
Monson, C. M., Schnurr, P. P., Resick, P. A., Friedman, M. J., Young-Xu, Y., & Stevens, S. P. (2006). Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 898-907.
Substance Use Disorders
Dutra, L., Stathopoulou, G., Basden, S. L., Leyro, T. M., Powers, M. B., & Otto, M. W. (2008). A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(2), 179-187.
Magill, M., & Ray, L. A. (2009). Cognitive-behavioral treatment with adult alcohol and illicit drug users: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(4), 516-527.
Lundahl, B., & Burke, B. L. (2009). The effectiveness and applicability of motivational interviewing: a practice-friendly review of four meta-analyses. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(11), 1232-1245.
Powers, M. B., Vedel, E., & Emmelkamp, P. M. (2008). Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for alcohol and drug use disorders: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(6), 952-962.
Studies with Veterans
McDevitt-Murphy, M. E., Murphy, J. G., Williams, J. L., Monahan, C. J., Bracken-Minor, K. L., & Fields, J. A. (2014). Randomized controlled trial of two brief alcohol interventions for OEF/OIF veterans. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(4), 562-568.
Martens, M. P., Cadigan, J. M., Rogers, R. E., & Osborn, Z. H. (2015). Personalized drinking feedback intervention for veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 76(3), 355-259.
Ehde, D. M., Dillworth, T. M., & Turner, J. A. (2014). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for individuals with chronic pain: efficacy, innovations, and directions for research. American Psychologist, 69(2), 153-66.
Hoffman, B. M., Papas, R. K., Chatkoff, D. K., & Kerns, R. D. (2007). Meta-analysis of psychological interventions for chronic low back pain. Health Psychology, 26(1), 1-9.
Morley, S., Eccleston, C., & Williams, A. (1999). Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cognitive behaviour therapy and behaviour therapy for chronic pain in adults, excluding headache. Pain, 80(1-2), 1-13.
Studies with Veterans
Wetherell, J. L., Afari, N., Rutledge, T., Sorrell, J. T., Stoddardd, J., A., Petkuse, A. J., . . . Atkinson, J. H. (2011). A randomized, controlled trial of acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic pain. Pain, 152(9), 2098-2107.
Stewart, M. O., Karlin, B. E., Murphy, J. L., Raffa, S. D., Miller, S. A., McKellar, J., & Kerns, R. D. (2015). National dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for chronic pain in Veterans: Therapist and patient-level outcomes. Clinical Journal of Pain, 31(8), 722-729.
Christensen, A., and Doss, B. D. (2017). Integrative behavioral couple therapy. Current Opinions in Psychology, 13, 111-114.
Fischer, M. S., Baucom, D. H., & Cohen, M. J. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral couple therapies: Review of the evidence for the treatment of relationship distress, psychopathology, and chronic health conditions. Family Process, 15(3), 423-442.
Christensen, A., Atkins, D. C., Baucom, B., & Yi, J. (2010). Marital status and satisfaction five years following a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 225-235.